Shivaji is a brilliant fighter, as well as an excellent Maratha administration. He possessed an advisory panel to help him with his day-to-day management. Ashta Pradhan was the name given to this group of eight ministers. Its main purpose was to provide advice. The Peshwa also recognized as the prime minister handles the responsibility for the state’s wellbeing and concerns.
In the emperor’s absence, he presided for him. All public finances of the kingdom were examined and authorized by the Amatya, or finance minister. The Walkia-Nawis or Mantri kept track of the emperor’s actions and judicial processes. Summit, the emperor’s foreign minister insisted on him regarding all military problems.
Ambassadors and delegations from various nations are expected to visit. Sachiv or ShuruNawis, the king’s housing minister handled the king’s letters and obtained the authority to alter manuscripts. He also reviewed the Parganas’ finances. Religious, rites, and charities were overseen by Pandit Rao or Danadhyaksha or Sadar and Muhtasib or religious leader.
He was a canon law judge and a public ethical inspector. The chief judge, Nyayadhish, was in charge of both commercial and army justice. Sari Naubat, also known as the commanding officer, controlled the Army’s recruiting, organization, and regulation.
Every one of the administrators, excluding the Nyayadhish and Pandit Rao, commanded armies and executed campaigns. Every imperial letter, charters, and the treaty had to have the King’s and Peshwa’s seals, as well as the approval of the four officials who were not the Danadyksha, Nyayadhisha, or Senapati. Several ministers controlled 18 distinct divisions.
Government of the Province
Shivaji split the empire into four regions, each with its governor, for legal purposes. Pranths were created to partition the provinces. All officials got paid cash and abolished the practice of giving jagirs. Even when the profits of a certain location are allotted to a specific official, his sole connection was to the property’s income. He did not influence the individuals involved. No job is passed down through the generations. The Pranth’s operations were centered around the fort. The village was the lowest level of governance, with a traditional administrative structure in place.
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System of Revenue
Shivaji’s revenue administration showed kindness and generosity to the farmers. The land got extensively inspected and evaluated. The state’s demand remained at 30% of gross production, either in cash or in sort. Later The tax increased to 40%. The sum of money that had to be provided as specified. During times of drought, the administration provided funds and grains to the farmers, and they need to repay in installments. The farmers were also given generous loans to buy animals, seeds, and other necessities.
Sardeshmukhi and Chauth
Shivaji received two tariffs, Chauth as well as Sardeshmukhi, from the neighboring regions of his kingdom, the Muslim regions, and also the Sultanate of Bijapur’s lands, because the money gathered out from the kingdom resulted inadequate to fulfill the Emperor’s demands. The income of the territory captured by that of the Marthas equaled one-fourth of Chauth’s.
Besides the way of his status as Sardeshmukh, Shivaji got entitled to an additional ten percent of the revenue. Numerous Deshmukhs possessed Sardeshmukh as their supreme head. Shivaji stated that he represents the nation’s ancestral Sardeshmukh.
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Organization of the Military
Shivaji established a permanent army. He opposed the practice of awarding jagirs and appointing hereditary posts. The soldiers were granted quarters. Soldiers received the amount regularly. The armed forces possessed 4 distinct sections, soldiers, cavalry, elephant force, and cannon were among the forces deployed. Although the troops were skilled in guerilla warfare, they also got trained in ordinary combat at a later period.
Military units, groups, and sections were formed out of the soldiers. A Naik handled the smallest unit, which included nine troops (corporal). A single havildar was assigned to each regiment of 25 cavalries. One jamaladar handed above five havildars, and one hazari distributed over 10 jamaladars. The supreme commander of cavalry was Sari Naubat. The cavalry was divided into two classes: bargirs (soldiers who were granted horses by the government) and shiledars (soldiers who were provided with horses by the government) (mercenary horsemen who need to search for their own horses). Water carriers and farriers were also present.
Justice was administered in a basic fashion. There were no established courts or processes in place. The panchayats occurred in the rural areas. Tribulations were a frequent practice. The Patels were in charge of criminal matters. The Nyayadhish (chief justice) handled arguments including both criminal and civil matters under the direction of the smritis. The last court of appeal was Hazir Majlim.