The Successors of Shivaji – Introduction
The Successors of Shivaji – Here the Maratha Empire, also known as the Maratha Confederacy, had based in modern-day India’s southwest. From 1674 through 1818, they dominated and expanded their lands. The Maratha Empire was initiated by Shivaji and united by Peshwas (the empire’s Prime Minister). The most powerful Maratha family are the Mores, Ghatages, and Nibalkars.
Sambhaji (AD 1680-80)
Sambhaji the younger son of Shivaji, came to the throne following his elder brother Rajaram’s defeat in a succession battle. In order to avoid a Rajput-Maratha coalition and to continue his interaction with the Deccan Sultanates, he resurrected his father’s expansionist intentions.
In AD 1682, Mughal emperor Aurangzeb led an army of around 180,000 warriors to conquer the Sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda with his whole imperial court, administration, and army.
Sambhaji was a linguist who spoke Marathi and also other languages. Budhbhushan is a Sanskrit book he wrote. He analyses warfare strategy for rulers in this poetic essay on politics. Saatsatak, Nayika Bhed, and Nakhshikha are among his Hindi works. Sambhaji began his military attacks against numerous kingdoms in the surrounding area.
Unlike his father, Sambhaji, on the other hand, allowed his warriors to steal and destroy the acquired lands. Beginning with the raid on Burhanpur, there had frequent confrontations with the Mughals.
Sambhaji was also at odds with the Janjira Siddis as well as the Portuguese who existed in Goa. In 1684, he signed a contract with the English, recognizing the importance of English weaponry and gunpowder. Sambhaji also tried to overthrow Chikkadevaraja, the ruler of Mysore. He is known as Dharmaveer. However, he apprehended, tortured, and mutilated at Tulapur in1689 in a horrific manner.
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Rajaram (AD 1689-1700)
After Sambhaji’s death, Shivaji’s other son assumed the throne and began the Marathas’ legacy. He began the Marathas’ legacy of expansionist policies by attacking Mughal territory in Deccan.
The Mughal army, led by Zulfikar Khan, attacked Raigarh in October of 1689. All of Sambhaji’s family members, along with his son Shahu, were kidnapped. In the year 1700, he perished in Satara, which became the capital following Jinji’s fall.
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Tarabai and Sivaji (AD 1700-1707)
Tarabai, Rajaram’s widow, gave the kingdom to Sivaji, Rajaram’s son, and served as administrator. At the crisis of military forces, She maintained unity in the Maratha state. Mughals removed Tarabai with the support of Balaji Vishwanath, a Chitpavan Brahman.
Shahu (AD 1707 – 1749)
Shahu had released by Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah, which sparked a civil war with both him and Tarabai.
At the War of Khed on October 12, 1707, Shahu defeated Tarabai and conquered Satara.
During his rule, Peshwaship gained notoriety, and the Maratha monarchy was transformed into a confederate empire.
During his reign, the Maratha empire was divided into two parts: Kolhapur, which was ruled by Tarabai, and Satara, which was ruled by Shahu.
The ‘Treaty of Warna finally put an end to the two feuds in 1731. As a result, it was ultimately proven that Shivaji was the chief leader to lay the foundation for the Maratha State, later it grew significantly under the Peshwaship.
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