What is agricultural sciences, importance, and division

Agricultural Sciences

Every creature on this planet needs food in one form or another to survive. Food along with air and water is one of the necessities of humankind and essential for our survival(Agricultural Sciences).

We get our food mostly from plants. Agriculture is the mode of producing food items for us and other animals from plants. These food items have a variety and provide us with essential nutrition for our well-being. 

Credits – NITI Aayog

The branch of science that deals with food and fiber production and their processing is known as agricultural sciences. The various stages of agriculture are soil cultivation, crop plantation and cultivation, animal husbandry, and the processing of plants and animals for our use, and consumption.

Major contributions of agricultural sciences to agriculture

Agricultural sciences have played an exceptional task in improving the agriculture sector. The most important task was to improve the quality and fertility of the soil. The production of fertilizers has played a pivotal role in increasing the fertility of the soil. 

The improvement in the quality of seeds has increased the productivity of crops. The improvements in controlling pests and weeds have helped farmers. The innovation of Tractors, plows, cultivators, combine harvesters, etc has created a revolution in the agricultural sector. 

Some of the major contributions of the agricultural sciences in recent times are GIS software and GPS agriculture, Genetically engineered seeds, Satellite imagery, hybrid seeds, improved quality of fertilizers, pesticides, weedicides, etc.

History of agriculture

The history of agriculture encompasses thousands of years. With the innovation of agriculture, the human population began to live in groups and near riverine areas for water to cultivate, and also the soil near the rivers was more fertile than in other areas. 

Some civilizations started to live in villages such as the Sumerian civilization and Indus Valley civilization. They grew a variety of agricultural items including barley, rice, and wheat.

When there was a surplus of food items they used to trade them with other items through a barter system of trade.

In the Middle Ages, the cultivation of a variety of agricultural items and reforms made by the rulers for agriculture saw a rise in agricultural activities along with a rise in population.

Cities started to come up and markets were set up to facilitate trade with other countries. The reforms in irrigation facilities, crop rotation, and availability of animals to work on the farmlands made agriculture flourish in countries like India and China.

Since 1900, agriculture in developed countries has seen large rises in productivity because human labor has been replaced by machines. The developing countries have seen improvement in the agriculture sector all thanks to the innovation done by agricultural sciences.

The synthesis of ammonium nitrate fertilizers on a large scale has helped the farmers manifold.

Modern agriculture has seen an increase in fertilizer use, pesticides, and weedicides and they have raised concerns for the farmers. Water pollution, environmental issues, and chemicals in food items are major concerns in front of agricultural sciences.

Organic farming is being promoted instead of inorganic farming.

Major divisions of agricultural sciences

  • Soil and water sciences.
  • Plant Sciences.
  • Animal sciences.
  • Agricultural engineering.
Credits: Infinity Learn NEET


What are the Types of Agriculture?

Four types of agriculture: Pastoralism, Shifting Cultivation, Subsistence Farming, and Intensive Farming.

What is Farming and its Types?

The process of working the ground, planting seeds, and growing edible plants is called farming.

Types of farming: subsistence farming, commercial farming, transfer farming, intensive farming, extensive farming, plantation farming, and mixed farming. These different types of farming are practiced in India based on location, climate, technology advancement, labor, demand, etc.

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