The branch of science that attempts to find and explain the laws that command the natural world through scientific methods such as observations, experimentation, and quantitative data is known as natural science.
In natural sciences, the researcher also aims to provide mathematical models of the respective subject of study. In natural sciences tools from formal sciences such as mathematics and logic are applied to measure and explain the laws of nature.
For the past 5 centuries, natural sciences have been continuously evolving and have changed our way of living and thinking.
Natural sciences have two branches
- Life sciences: Biology
- Physical sciences: Chemistry, physics, earth sciences, and astronomy
Biology in Natural science
Biology deals with the study of living organisms. Biology has subdivisions such as botany, zoology, medicine, and microbiology. Ancient people have good knowledge of botany, zoology, and medicine.
Microbiology is rather a newer branch of biology and its study began with the invention of the microscope in the 17th century. The key findings in biology are genetics, theory of evolution, disease-causing germs theory, and application of physical sciences such as chemistry and physics at the cellular level.
The science that deals with the study of the earth are called earth science. In modern times earth science has evolved and it has several subdivisions of studies, some of them are geography, geology, geophysics, geochemistry, climatology, glaciology, oceanography, etc.
Chemistry deals with the study of matter at the atomic and molecular level such as gases, molecules, crystals, and metals. Chemistry facilitates the study of the composition of a substance, its transformation into another substance, and the reaction of one substance to another substance. These studies are done in laboratories. Chemistry is one of the main factors in medical science.
Physics in Natural science
Physics contains the fundamental laws of the universe. Physics studies the forces behind the physical universe and its phenomena. mathematics and logical information are often used in physics to prove the laws of nature. Researchers often apply empirical and quantitative data to prove their findings.
The history of physics is long and peaked in the later medieval period. Earlier philosophers used to formulate theories about the governing laws of the universe and it was the central point of their study. With explanations due to the use of mathematics and logic in physics paved the way for many discoveries that were unknown before such as laws of motion, gravitation, special theory of relativity, etc.
Astronomy is the study of heavenly bodies such as stars, planets, satellites, asteroids, and then meteors, etc. Everything out of the earth’s atmosphere is studied in astronomy. Since ancient times astronomers used to perform methodical experiments on the night sky. Astronomy tries to apply other natural science branches to study the objects outside of the atmosphere of the earth.
Interdisciplinary studies of natural sciences
Natural science and its branches are not sharply distinct. Several fields share cross-discipline fields such as astrophysics, geophysics, biochemistry, chemical biology, etc. These interdisciplinary studies incorporate studies from various fields of natural science and create an altogether new branch of study.